トルコに兵を引かせるためにロシアはどんな知恵を出すか: ずくなしの冷や水

2019年10月23日

トルコに兵を引かせるためにロシアはどんな知恵を出すか

シリア軍がマンビジに進軍しましたが、エルドアンは余裕の対応です。

10/17、米国副大統領ペンスをはじめとするデリゲーションがアンカラに入りました。この目的は、クルドが国境近辺から避難する時間を作ることだったようで、5日間の停戦が決まりました。10/18からですと10/22(トルコ時間で午後10時)までです。

一方、10/22にエルドアンがプーチンと会います。10/17、ロシアハイレベル交渉団がアンカラ入りしています。

現地レベルでは処理できない事柄とくれば、国境地帯の管理問題です。集中的に協議が進められると思われましたが、先週末からラブロフとザリフ、ザリフとアラブ諸国の外相との間で個別に協議が行われています。もちろんロシアはシリアと綿密に打ち合わせしています。クルドの説得は、シリアとロシアが共調しつつでしょう。

そして、案がまとまれば10/22、エルドアン、プーチン会談で決定、発表となる手はずと見られましたが、記者会見はまだ伝えられていません。

停戦合意ができても、国境を挟んでトルコとクルドSDFの戦闘が散発的には続いたようです。トルコは、5日待てばロシアが何か案を出してくると見込んでいますから、その待ち時間を有効に利用したことになります。

シリア、アサドの政治アドバイザーがトルコの進軍が混乱を拡大させ、ISISの再興・活動活発化を招くと警戒していますが、各地にシリア軍が配置されれば、大元の推進者が逃げてしまったこともあり、重火器を使った攻撃はないだろうと見られます。これまでは、SDFかあるいはトルコの物資補給があったはずですから、それが止まれば戦えません。(この政治アドバイザーは、中年の女性ですが、プレスの取材にポイントをそらしたり、宣伝をしたりなかなかしたたかです。)

ロシアがそれよりも懸念しているのは、テロリストが出身国に帰ってテロの発生地域が拡大するのではないかということです。特に東南アジアのイスラム教徒のいる国々でのテロ発生の可能性が指摘されています。

それにしても、米軍の撤退時の慌て方は、激しかったようです。コバニの南方にあるセメント工場に設置されていた米軍基地を米軍が空爆で破壊しています。

慌ただしい逃げ方が恥ずかしいからだとの説もある一方、テロリストとのつながりを示す証拠を破壊する必要があったからだとの説もあります。

撤退した米軍兵士は、イラクに逃げたようですが、米軍の威信は地に落ちました。一方でロシアはトルコとシリアの間で国境地帯の管理について取り決めをまとめることができれば、また評価が上がります。

マンビジはアレッポの東北にあるテロリストの重要拠点で、テロリストが少年の首を切るシーンの画像が流れるなどいろいろな事件がありました。ロシアの軍警がパトロールした際の画像がアップされています。

次の画像の幹線道路を西の端から走ってきます。






この間、トルコ軍がクルドとの戦いで化学薬品攻撃を行った疑いが出ましたが、トルコの国防大臣は、クルドのミリチアが使ったと弁明しています。特に問題が拡大することはありませんでした。

トルコは、国境地帯管理問題については、ユーフラテス川からイラク国境に至るシリアの国境地帯の内側に32km幅の安全地帯を作る、そこをトルコ軍が管理する、YPGは重火器を廃棄することを要求しています。

これがロシアとの間でもトルコ側の要求として提示されているはずで、YPG、クルドの武装解除、シリア・トルコ国境のシリア側一定の幅の武力行為の禁止、取り締まりをどう確保するかが協議の核心になっています。シリア、ロシアともにトルコ軍による管理は認められないので、ロシアが入った形で武力行為の停止措置をどう担保するかが焦点です。トルコのオブザーバーを認めるかどうか? マンビジなどにロシア軍の警察部隊が入って早速パトロールを開始しました。

トルコは、テロリストの大スポンサーでした。米国が撤退し、トルコがテロリスト支援・雇用をやめれば、あとテロリストを支援するのはサウジとイスラエルが主たるスポンサーになります。サウジは、米国政権の意向に従ってカネを出しています。したがってサウジやUAEが引き続きカネを出すかが米国のシリア政策を占う手段となります。イスラエルは、シリアの国内の戦争が収まれば、シリアに攻撃を仕掛けることはやりにくく、場合によっては手痛い反撃を受けることになりますから慎重にならざるを得ないでしょう。友好的な立場を取っていたロシアも偵察機撃墜事件などで厳しい姿勢に変わりつつあります。(ロシアにはユダヤ人が多くいて冷戦末期に数多くの人がイスラエルに渡りました)

次のニュースによれば、トルコは国境地帯のトルコ軍による管理を強く主張しているようです。

イランとロシアの外相が2019/10/17電話会談、イランの外相が地域の外務大臣らと協議しているとあります。イランは、この地域で影響力を強めているように感じられます。

エルドアンが米国が約束を果たさなければ停戦期間完了と同時に以前よりも大規模な攻撃を再開すると脅しました。トルコと米国との合意は明らかではありませんが、トルコが安全地帯化を狙う地域からクルドの戦闘指導者などの退去が含まれている模様です。

エルドアンがプーチンと会う前の発言のようです。

停戦期限は標準時で19時とされています。日本時間の午前4時です。

米国がクルド強硬派を説得し、あるいは取引をしてトルコ国境近辺から退去させることに成功すれば、ロシアはクルドの退却を既定事項として扱うことができますから、交渉は容易になります。

ただ、現時点でエルドアンが凄みを効かせたということは、クルド強硬派はまだ残留しているということでしょうから米国の説得が成功しない場合には、これまでに生じた以上の戦闘が始まる恐れがあります。

シリア軍は一部国境の町に入っていますし、トルコとクルドの間で激しい戦闘再開なら遠巻きにして眺めているわけにもいかず困難な局面に陥ることになります。

エルドアンはソチに向かい、協議が行われていますが、まだ結果が発表されません。現在日本時間零時、ソチは午後7時。

10/23午前2時前に記者会見が始まりました。現地時間午後9時です。協議は7時間続いたとあります。大統領のスピーチに続いて露土の外相による説明が始まりました。
プレスの反応は冷静です。 
(管理人はここでダウンしました。10/23朝再開)

合意のポイントは
@ トルコは、一部の地域について自らの作戦を継続する。
A クルドのミリティアは、シリア・トルコ国境から30kmシリア内部に引かなければならない。トルコは、Tell Abyad とRas al-Aynの間、シリア側32kmの幅で作戦を行う。
B その他の国境地帯、Kobani から Tell Abyad までと Ras al-Ayn からイラク国境までは、シリア軍がロシア軍軍警察の支援を受けて管理する。
C また、トルコの軍事作戦の影響を受けない地域は、シリア側10kmの範囲でトルコ軍とロシア軍軍警察が共同パトロールを行う。
D テロリストの囚人たちがトルコの軍事作戦によって脱走したりすることのないようにする。刑務所を作り維持してきた者は責任を負うべき。(米軍も念頭にあるでしょう)
E 1998年アダナ協定の再活性化。この協定はトルコがシリア国境を越えてPKK対策を講じることを認めています。


ロシアとシリアは、シリア国内のクルドの戦闘行為あるいは準備行為の取り締まりは、ロシア軍の支援を受けたシリア軍が行うことにしたかったはずですが、トルコの要求は強かったと見られます。

ロシアは、自身が外部からくるテロリストの脅威を受けており、そのような周辺地域からのテロ攻撃に対する対抗措置の必要性はよく理解しています。そのためこのようなトルコの要求を大幅に許容した協定になったものと見られます。(そもそもロシアがシリア内戦にシリア側で参加したのは、テロリストが支配地域を広げればそれだけ勢力が強まり、ロシアをはじめとする周辺国への脅威が高まることを阻止するためです。)

トルコは、米国との合意も引き合いに出して、約束が守られないと主張したでしょう。(エルドアンは、米国から経済制裁を行わないとの約束を取り付けて5日間の停戦に合意したはずですが)

ラブロフが、米国のシリアに関する立場は、耳を傾けるにはあまりに流動的で矛盾に満ちていると述べています。ロシア側の立場がいつも不変であることをしっかりアピールしました。

まだ、この協定に関する他国の反応は出ていませんが、特にトルコの主張が通ったと見られる点で、各国首脳は注目するはずです。ロシアに仲介を頼めば、大国の都合で一方的な譲歩を迫られるわけではないと受け止める国が多いでしょう。

この柔軟性が最近のロシアの仲介活動の特徴です。タリバンもロシアを信用しています。レバノンも駆け込みました。

おそらくロシアがシリアなどと協議して用意した協定案は、もう少しトルコの主張を抑え込んだものだったでしょう。ですが、米国との間の5日間の停戦の期間終了が間近になる中で、ロシア側にはなんとかまとめたいとの意欲が強く、7時間もの長時間の協議となりました。最終協定案を見せられたシリア政府もすぐには回答できなかったでしょう。

記者会見に出たラブロフは、疲労の色が濃かったです。多謝。

トルコ国防省は、当面新しい作戦開始の必要を認めないとしています。

RT2019/10/22
Russian & Syrian forces to deploy to northeastern Syria outside Turkey operation zone – Putin-Erdogan agreement

Russian military police and Syrian servicemen will be deployed to northeastern Syria, while Turkey’s operation ‘Peace Spring’ will continue in a limited area, presidents Putin and Erdogan have agreed after lengthy talks.

Moscow understands the reasons behind the ongoing Turkish military incursion into Syria, Russia's President Vladimir Putin said, though he stressed it must not play into the hands of terrorists and that the territorial integrity of Syria must be preserved. Ultimately, the country must be freed from all “illegal foreign military presence,” the president added, reiterating Moscow's long-time position.

The almost-seven-hour-long talks in Sochi, Russia between Putin and his Turkish counterpart Recep Tayyip Erdogan were focused on the situation in Syria, particularly the ongoing offensive in its northeastern region.

Kurdish forces to withdraw

The agreement says the Kurdish-led militias – the prime target of the Turkish operation – must withdraw into Syrian territory beyond 30km from the Turkish border. Erdogan's operation, meanwhile, will continue in a limited area – between towns of Tell Abyad and Ras al-Ayn – up to 32km inside Syrian territory.
Syrian army to be deployed to the border

Other parts of the Syrian border – from Kobani to Tell Abyad and from Ras al-Ayn to the Iraqi border – are set to be controlled by the Syrian military and border guards, supported by Russian military police.
Joint Russia-Turkey patrols along the border

At the same time, areas not affected by the Turkish military operation, will be jointly patrolled by the Turkish military and Russian military police up to 10km deep into Syrian territory.
Captive ISIS militants must be contained

The issue of multiple prisons and camps in northeastern Syria where Islamic State (IS, formerly ISIS) fighters are detained, was specifically singled out. Putin stressed that the inevitable chaos created by the Turkish operation should not allow them to escape.

“It’s important that members of terrorist organizations, including ISIS, whose militants are held captive by Kurdish armed groups and are trying to break free, do not take advantage of the Turkish armed forces actions,” Putin stressed.

Russia’s Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, for his part, urged those who had created and maintained the prisons to understand their “responsibility” in preventing IS detainees' escape.
Revitalizing 1998 Adana Accord

Both Turkey and Russia reiterated the importance of the 1998 Adana accord, a security pact between Syria and Turkey. Among other things it allows the Turkish military to carry out cross-border operations in Syria, while Damascus promised not to harbor members of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), which Ankara considers a terrorist organization. While diplomatic relations between the two were significantly damaged during the years of the Syrian conflict, the pact was never denounced, and now Moscow has pledged to support its implementation in the “modern reality.”

The PKK has been waging a low-intensity insurgency in Turkey for decades, ultimately seeking the creation of an independent Kurdish state. Ankara has accused the Kurdish-led militias across the border in Syria of having strong ties to the PKK. Indeed, PKK flags and insignia have been repeatedly seen displayed by Kurdish forces in Syria, though the extent of the ties between the groups is not known.
US stance on Syria too ‘fluid & contradictory’ to listen to

The Turkish-Russian memorandum mostly covers the same region and the same issue as the deal reached between Ankara and Washington five days ago. Still, the US and its “ceasefire” were barely mentioned by the top officials after Tuesday's Sochi talks.The reason behind that was summed up by Russia’s foreign minister.

”We do not particularly look at the United States and its stance. That stance is quite variable and contradictory, and of course, the coalition led by the United States is in Syria illegally, this is well known,” Lavrov told reporters.
Damascus is on board

After the meeting with Erdogan, Russia’s president spoke to his Syrian counterpart Bashar Assad, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said. Assad has expressed support for the memorandum, stating that the Syrian border guards are ready to work together with Russian military police.

On October 9, the region was invaded by the Turkish military and affiliated militants from the so-called Syrian “opposition.” The operation targeted Kurdish-led militias, which Ankara considers to be “terrorists.” The assault, dubbed ‘Operation Peace Spring’, kicked off just two days after US President Donald Trump announced the withdrawal of his country’s troops from the northeast of Syria.

Last week, the US and Turkey agreed a five-day ceasefire in the region, which expires at 10pm local time (19:00 GMT) on Tuesday. The pause in the operation was intended to allow the Kurdish-led militias to withdraw, facilitating the creation of a 20-mile “safe zone” within Syria that Turkey has sought to establish. Earlier in the day, Erdogan said he was ready to resume the operation if the US fails to keep its promises.

Moscow has repeatedly urged Turkey to show restraint in its activities in Syria, and warned it against doing anything that might hamper the political settlement process in the country.

・・・・・

Putin & Erdogan face media after talks on Syria
Russian President Vladimir Putin and his Turkish counterpart Recep Tayyip Erdogan are speaking to reporters in Sochi, following talks focused on Turkey’s military operation in Syria.

The meeting lasted over five hours – significantly longer than initially expected – and left journalists waiting for the two leaders for more than three hours.
The meeting lasted almost seven hours – significantly longer than initially expected – and left journalists waiting for the two leaders for quite a while.

Moscow has repeatedly urged Turkey to show restraint in its activities in Syria, and warned it against doing anything that might hamper the political settlement process in the country.


RT2019/10/22
‘more determination’ if US doesn’t keep its promises – Erdogan
Ankara will step up its offensive against the Kurds in northeastern Syria if Washington fails to have the Kurdish fighters withdrawn by Tuesday evening, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan warned.

Erdogan said Turkey will resume the offensive into Kurdish-controlled territories if the US fails to facilitate the withdrawal of the Kurdish militias from the areas along the Turkish-Syrian border once the five-day ceasefire expires at 10pm local time (19:00 GMT) on Tuesday.

If the promises given to us by America are not kept, we will continue our operation from where it left off, this time with a much bigger determination.

Ankara launched an offensive, dubbed Operation Peace Spring, two weeks ago, aiming to create a 20-mile ‘safe zone’ along its border with Syria, which would be free from the Kurdish militias it considers terrorists. Turkey later agreed to temporarily suspend the assault, under the condition that the US would oversee a withdrawal of the Kurdish forces.

Speaking on Tuesday afternoon, Erdogan said that the retreat of the Kurdish fighters was in progress and closely monitored by Turkey.

The Kurds, fighting under the umbrella group the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), have been one of the key American allies in fighting Islamic State (IS, formerly ISIS/ISIL) militants in northeastern Syria. This relation changed dramatically after US President Donald Trump announced that the US troops will be completely leaving the area. The news came mere days before the Turkish invasion, quickly prompting the Kurds to seek the help from Syrian leader Bashar Assad and Russia.

Syrian government troops eventually entered the cities of Manbij and Raqqa, shortly after the US soldiers have left them.

RT2019/10/19
Turkey will‘crush the heads’ of Kurdish fighters who don’t withdraw from northern Syria within 120 hours – Erdogan
Kurdish forces have five days to leave northern Syria, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said, warning that those who fail to comply with his ultimatum will be exterminated.

Speaking on Saturday, Erdogan vowed that Turkey would “crush the heads” of Kurdish militias that still control pockets of northern Syria, ten days after Ankara launched a cross-border military incursion into the region.

A fragile ceasefire is currently in place between Turkish-backed militias and the Kurds. However, both sides have accused the other of provocations and ceasefire violations.

The temporary truce is meant to provide time to the Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) to leave a “safe zone” that Turkey says will extend more than 30km (about 20 miles) deep inside Syria.

Erdogan also confirmed that he would discuss the tense situation in Syria with Russian President Vladimir Putin next week in Sochi. Moscow has called for restraint from all sides. Putin has said that the territorial integrity of Syria must be fully restored and all foreign forces should withdraw, including the Russian military if Damascus decides it doesn’t need Moscow’s help anymore.

FARSNEWS2019/10/19
Iranian FM Confers on Latest Developments in Syria with Turkish Counterpart
TEHRAN (FNA)- Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif in a phone conversation with his Turkish counterpart Mevlut Cavusoglu discussed the latest developments in Syria, specially in the Northern parts of the country after Ankara's incursion.

The phone talks were held late on Friday Zarif and Cavusoglu discussed the latest regional developments, particularly Northern Syria in a telephone conversation late on Friday.

The phone talk came following Zarif's consultations with regional states' officials after Turkey launched an attack on north Syria.

Meanwhile, Zarif dealt with the latest regional developments and war in Northern Syria in separate telephone talks with the Russian, Iraqi and Syrian foreign ministers late on Thursday.

According to Iran Ministry of Foreign Affairs Media Head Office, the talks with the officials of the other countries will continue.

During the phone conversation with his Syrian counterpart Walid al-Muallem on Thursday, Zarif underlined the need for an end to Turkey’s incursion into Syria and also looking for a political solution to the problems between Ankara government and the Kurds.

In another telephone talk with Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov on Thursday, Zarif discussed bilateral relations and regional developments, including Syria.

During the telephone conversation, the two sides exchanged views on the latest developments in Northeastern Syria.

Zarif and Lavrov underlined the need to achieve a durable and long-term stability in the Eastern bank of the Euphrates River on the basis of respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Syria.

FARSNEWS2019/10/18
Iranian, Russian FMs Discuss Bilateral Ties, Syria on Phone
TEHRAN (FNA)- Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif and his Russian counterpart Sergei Lavrov in a telephone conversation on Thursday discussed bilateral relations and regional developments, including Syria.

During the phone talk on Thursday, the two sides exchanged views on the latest developments in Northeastern Syria.

Zarif and Lavrov underlined the need to achieve a durable and long-term stability in the Eastern bank of the Euphrates River on the basis of respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Syria.

On Thursday, the Syrian government troops accompanied by Russian forces entered the city of Ein Al-Arab (Kobani).

FARSNEWS2019/10/18
Russia Says All Syrian National Lands Must Be Put Under Damascus’ Control
TEHRAN (FNA)- Moscow favors the restoration of Syria’s territorial integrity by putting all national territories, including the frontier zone with Turkey under the control of Damascus, Russian Foreign Ministry Spokeswoman Maria Zakharova told a briefing on Thursday.

"We are confident that a firm and long-term stabilization and security in that region of Syria, in the country and in the region in general is possible only through the restoration of its sovereignty and territorial integrity," the diplomat stated, according to TASS.

"This means that all national territories, including the border with Turkey must ultimately be placed under the control of the legitimate Syrian government," Zakharova stressed.

Last Wednesday, Ankara launched a military operation codenamed Peace Spring in Northern Syria. The aim of the offensive is to create a buffer zone to protect the Turkish border. Ankara believes that Syrian refugees might return from Turkey there.

The official Syrian news agency SANA slammed the operation as aggression. The international community also criticized Ankara. Damascus has also dispatched army units to the North to offer resistance to the Turkish Army.

FARSNEWS2019/10/17
Turkish Forces Likely Use Chemical Weapons in Northern Syria
TEHRAN (FNA)- Scores of civilians in Northern Syria were chemically injured in Turkish-led military operation against Kurdish militias on Wednesday in an incident that could push the conflict between Damascus and Ankara to another level.

Several cases of people suffering from severe burns have arrived in Hasaka Hospital from Ras al-Ain as it is more likely that the injury resulted from being exposed to mysterious chemical substances, official news agency SANA reported.

Local sources claimed that several cases of people with severe burns due to the Turkish shelling on Ras al-Ain city, North of Hasaka, on Wednesday evening arrived in the hospital, indicating that their burns are more likely to be resulted from using unknown chemical substances by Ankara-backed militants.

Earlier, sources close to the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) declared that the Turkish-supported militias used the internationally-banned phosphorus in shelling residential neighborhoods in Ras al-Ain city.

Ras al-Ain may be a small border town but it is key in Ankara's plan to create a 'safe zone' along the border East of the Euphrates River.

After meeting with US National Security Advisor Robert O'Brien in Ankara on Wednesday, Turkish Defense Minister Hulusi Akar said "information emerged that terror groups are intending to use chemical weapons and blame it on Turkish military".

"Turkish military does not have any chemical weapon in its inventory, everybody knows this," the defense minister added.

As Turkey's operation has entered its second week, heavy battles continue on the ground. A fierce combat erupted in Ras al-Ain, with the SDF mounting fierce defence using tunnels and trenches. The Turkish military aircrafts have also launched heavy bombardment on the city and villages in its vicinity.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that Turkish forces have extended their control over several towns and villages, including the strategic city of Tel Abyad. SDF managed to regain control of the entire city of Ras al-Ain, as well as the town of Tal Halaf.

On Thursday, Turkey's Defense Ministry announced that a total of 673 Kurdish militias have been killed since the launch of Ankara's ongoing military operation in Northern Syria.

Last Wednesday, Ankara and its allied militants launched a new military campaign in Northern Syria dubbed ‘Operation Peace Spring’ that has triggered widespread condemnation.

Rather than Turkish regulars, however, the troops used in the operation appear to be militants, which similarly happened in 2016 during ‘Operation Euphrates Shield’ that targeted the Kurds around Afrin.

Meanwhile, the Kurds have struck an agreement with the Syrian government troops to move to the border and block the militants. Previously, the US blocked any attempts to return the territories held by its Kurdish allies to the government in Damascus, as they contained most of Syria’s oil and agricultural resources.

RT2019/10/17
Ankara confirms ‘pausing’ operation against Kurds in Syria, but says its goals stay unchanged
Turkey has confirmed reaching an agreement with the US on temporarily halting its military operation against Kurdish-led militias in northern Syria but refused to call it a ‘ceasefire’, adding that it will go on with its plans.
‘Operation Peace Spring’ will be seized for five days, Foreign Minister Melvut Cavusoglu announced. It came just as US Vice President Mike Pence and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo – currently on a visit to Ankara – were breaking the same news to journalists there.
While saying that the Turkish Army would indeed stop a further incursion and let the Kurdish YPG militias – which Ankara calls a ‘terrorist organization’ – leave the ‘safe zone’, Cavusolgu still refused to call it a ceasefire. Such a thing is only possible between “two legitimate sides,” he told the local media.

He also said that Turkey intends to pursue its initial strategy and create a 32-kilometer deep ‘safe zone’ along its border with Syria stretching from the Euphrates River to Syria’s border with Iraq. He added that, under the fresh deal with the US, this zone would be controlled by Turkish troops.

Another part of the agreement involves the “collection” of all heavy arms from the YPG (key force of the Kurdish-led SDF) and destruction of their positions in the area. That said, Cavusoglu made it clear that Turkey did not give America any “guarantees” on the fate of such cities as Kobani (liberated in 2015 from Islamic State by the Kurds).

At the same time, he did mention that Turkey actually plans to discuss the fate of the cities within the ‘safe zone’ like Manbij at a forthcoming meeting between President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and the Russian leader, Vladimir Putin, in Sochi.

The pause to the hostilities was already hailed by President Donald Trump as an “amazing outcome.” Doubling down, he claimed that sanctions the US imposed on Ankara over the military operation are “no longer necessary” and would be lifted “very quickly.”

Erdogan launched ‘Peace Spring’ on October 9, souring Ankara’s relations with Washington, which saw Kurds as allies in a fight against Islamic State (IS, formerly ISIS). Trump repeatedly threatened Turkey with the destruction of its economy, if it did anything that Washington considers “off limits.”

Now, tensions seem to be easing off a bit as Trump thanked Erdogan for his decision in a tweet and said that the path to the Turkish leader’s visit to the US next month is now open.
posted by ZUKUNASHI at 13:11| Comment(0) | 国際・政治
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