Black gold to the East, red faces in the West: How Russia learned to stop worrying about US-led oil sanctions by looking to Asia
The G7 and EU believed that tightening the screws would mortally wound Moscow, but it seems to have backfired
In late December, Russian President Vladimir Putin responded to the price cap imposed by Western nations on Russian seaborne crude oil by signing a decree banning its supply from February 1 to nations that support the curb.

The US-led measure, which prohibited countries from paying more than $60 per barrel of Russian oil, came into effect in December. Putin’s response was an unequivocal declaration that Russia would not bow to sanctions pressure. His decree, however, includes the possibility of “special permission” to supply to countries that come under the purview of the ban – potentially a window of hope for some of those 27 EU members that are believed to have been coerced into supporting the price cap.
Redirecting supplies

The West’s cumulative bid to choke the Russian economy has not had the desired effect so far, as latest figures show. Russia’s budget revenues from the oil and gas industry grew 28% last year, amounting to $36.5 billion. Oil production in Russia rose 2% last year to 535 million tonnes, while exports of the fuel increased by 7.5%.

This was achieved in no small part, thanks to Moscow’s decision to redirect its supplies to India and China, while at the same time incentivising them to buy Russian energy with hefty discounts. While the country’s net energy export revenues declined by $172 million per day in December, supply quantities to Beijing and New Delhi have surged to an all-time high. Most of the decline came not from oil export revenues, but from pipeline natural gas exports that were eliminated by the sabotage of the Nord Stream gas pipelines.

China imported record quantities of Russian liquefied natural gas (LNG) in November – 852,000 tonnes, which is double the amount in the previous year, according to Chinese customs data. Sales of Russian crude oil and coal also surged.

Overall purchases of energy by China, including oil products, hit $8 billion in November, from a revised $7.8 billion a month earlier, meaning Russia overtook the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to make it China’s largest supplier. Coal imports from Russia, including brown coal, rose 41% to 7.2 million tonnes of which 2.1 million tonnes (twice the amount a year ago) was coking coal for the Chinese steel industry.

Similarly, India, which is the world's third-biggest crude importer, bought a record amount of Russian oil in December, importing a whopping 33 times more than a year earlier. It purchased an average of 1.2 million barrels per day (bpd) from Russia in December 2022, compared to just 36,255 bpd in December 2021, according to data from Vortexa Ltd, an energy intelligence firm. Imports from Iraq and Saudi Arabia over the same period were about 1M bpd each. In the year before March 2021, 0.2 per cent of India’s oil purchases came from Russia. Currently, it’s over 25% of the total.

Interestingly, the US, the prime mover behind the G7 shenanigans, has all along been a big consumer of a refined Russian product called virgin gas oil (VGO).

Now, Washington is buying VGO from Indian refineries run by Reliance Energy and Nayara Energy – whose raw material is Russian crude oil.
A ‘weak’ idea

In hindsight, Ukrainian President Vladimir Zelensky appears to have been right when he called out the G7 oil price cap as a “weak” idea that was not “serious” enough to hurt Russia.

Despite the boycott call and amid fears of a global recession, demand for Russian crude oil – the world’s second-largest producer – didn’t taper off. Oil prices went up in the months following February 2022 because of supply concerns, but eventually ended the year at about the same levels as they had started. Russia not only didn’t slow production, but it stood to make more.

For instance, on the final trading day of last year, the spot price of Brent crude oil, a global benchmark, closed at $85 per barrel, just $7 higher than the price on January 3, 2022. Similarly, the spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI), a benchmark price for US crude oil, followed the same pattern, finishing the trading year at $4 per barrel higher than on January 3. The Brent crude oil spot price averaged $100 per barrel last year, and the WTI spot price averaged $95.
More sanctions, more pain – but for whom?

On February 5, the EU’s additional ban on Russian petroleum products, especially diesel fuel, came into effect. At the same time, the G7 instituted a global price cap – $100 on premium petroleum products such as diesel and $45 on products such as fuel oil. The stated goal behind these new sanctions is the same – to deprive Russia of one of its most important sources of revenue in a bid to choke off its ability to finance the conflict in Ukraine.

However, analysts have questioned the sanctions’ efficiency, predicting that Russia could simply redirect its supplies like it did with crude oil. The Western ban on refined products may even boost Russian crude supplies to China, which is a large refiner itself.

The measure could also prove to be more disruptive for Western European nations, which relied on Russia for about 40% of their refined product imports. Perhaps most importantly, Russian diesel made up for a deficit in their own production.

Diesel is primarily used for truck transport in ferrying massive consignments to consumers and to run agricultural machinery. The EU has deliberately shut down over 1 million bpd of refining capacity in the past few years due to the Covid-19 pandemic and global climate change concerns, and it remains to be seen how the bloc will replace nearly 500,000 bpd, which it used to import from Russia.







同様に、世界第3位の原油輸入国であるインドは、12月に過去最高のロシア産原油を購入し、なんと前年比33倍もの量を輸入した。エネルギー情報会社Vortexa Ltdのデータによると、2021年12月にはわずか36,255bpdだったのに対し、2022年12月にはロシアから平均120万バレル/日(bpd)を購入したことになる。同時期のイラクとサウジアラビアからの輸入はそれぞれ約1M bpdだった。2021年3月までの1年間、インドの石油購入量の0.2%はロシアからのものだった。現在では25%を超えている。





より多くの制裁、より多くの痛み - しかし、誰にとって?

posted by ZUKUNASHI at 23:21| Comment(0) | 国際・政治


Russia to cut oil production in response to Western sanctions
Output will be reduced by 500,000 barrels per day in March
Russia will voluntarily reduce oil production in March by 500,000 barrels per day as it halts sales to buyers complying with a Western-imposed price cap, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Novak announced on Friday.

Novak said the move should help restore market relations shattered by the price ceiling, which he branded “illegal.”

“Russia believes that the mechanism of price caps on Russian oil and petroleum products is an intervention in market relations and an extension of destructive energy policies of the collective West,” the deputy PM said in a statement.

The EU and the G7 nations introduced a price cap on Russian supplies on February 5, setting a limit of $100 per barrel for diesel, jet fuel and gasoline coming from Russia, and a $45 per barrel for other oil products that trade below the crude price, such as fuel oil used in industry. Fuel exports priced over these limits will be barred from insurance and shipping services from companies located in Western countries. The caps follow a previously introduced $60-per-barrel price ceiling on Russian crude oil.

Russia has repeatedly warned of potential output cuts since the EU and G7 began discussing capping the price of Russian exports. Economists say the production reduction, which is the equivalent of about 5% of January’s output, may trigger volatility on the oil market, which has taken in its stride the EU ban on seaborne imports of Russian oil.

Russia is currently able to sell “all volumes of oil produced” to foreign markets, Novak said, adding that “we will act based on how the market situation is developing,” when making further decisions.

There are concerns that Moscow’s decision will deepen the 2 million barrel-a-day supply curbs announced late last year by OPEC+, which Russia leads along with Saudi Arabia.

An analyst at UBS Group, Giovanni Staunovo, told Bloomberg that in the short term there is nobody to fill the supply gap created by the Russian cuts.

Crude prices jumped on the news, with the international benchmark Brent rising more than 2% to $86.60 a barrel as 13:00 GMT on Friday.








原油価格はこのニュースを受けて上昇し、国際的なベンチマークであるブレントは、金曜日の13:00 GMT時点で1バレル86.60ドルまで2%以上上昇した。
posted by ZUKUNASHI at 22:48| Comment(0) | 国際・政治

Covid は、急性感染後少なくとも 6 か月間、なんと 35 倍の死亡率の増加を引き起こす

Bomshell: Covid は、急性感染後少なくとも 6 か月間、なんと 35 倍の死亡率の増加を引き起こします: 「Covid で」入院した人は、一次感染者とほぼ同じ死亡率の増加が見られました: 集団免疫である完全な詐欺を示しています ' Covid:
主要な疾患として Covid で入院した患者は、6 か月以内に死亡する可能性が 100 倍以上高くなります。
残念なことに、この研究は 1 つの感染のみを対象としており、複数の再感染は対象としていません。しかし、少なくとも 1 年間で、再感染のたびに死亡の可能性が 2 倍になり、何らかの原因による入院の可能性が 3 倍になることがわかっています。

残念なことに、この研究は 1 つの感染のみを対象としており、複数の再感染は対象としていません。しかし、少なくとも 1 年間で、再感染のたびに死亡の可能性が 2 倍になり、何らかの原因による入院の可能性が 3 倍になることがわかっています。
はいといいえ。再感染が早すぎる 3 〜 6 か月後の再感染は、1 〜 2 年後の再感染よりも深刻です。 Covid は免疫系にダメージを与え、完全に回復するには 8 か月から 1 年かかることがあります。感染後すぐに再感染する人は、リスクが高くなります。再感染の典型的な頻度は月あたり 1% 〜 3%

posted by ZUKUNASHI at 22:10| Comment(0) | Covid19


An air-raid alert was declared in all parts of the country
Ukrainian officials and media have reported a series of Russian drone and missile attacks targeting the country’s critical infrastructure. Several barrages reportedly caused power outages and disrupted train services.

The attacks are said to have started early on Friday morning, and air-raid warnings have since been activated all over the country. The Ukrainian Air Force command claimed they intercepted five kamikaze drones and five sea-launched Kalibr missiles.

Valery Zaluzhny, the commander-in-chief of Ukraine’s armed forces, claimed that two Kalibr missiles fired from the Black Sea had crossed the airspace of Romania and Moldova. Moldova’s defense ministry reported detecting a missile flying over its territory towards Ukraine, condemning the violation, but would not immediately blame Russia. However, its foreign ministry attributed the action to Moscow and said it would urgently summon the Russian ambassador.

The Russian Defense Ministry has so far not commented on the strikes.

Ukrenergo, Ukraine’s energy operator, stated that several high-voltage sites around the country had been hit. Emergency shutdowns are being implemented to preempt possible damage to the power grid from overload, it reported.

Railway operator Ukrzaliznytsia said the power cuts had forced several trains to be delayed, with some electric locomotives being replaced by backup diesel engines.

The administration of Kiev Region reported air-defense action and urged people to stay in shelters. According to Vitaly Klitschko, the mayor of the Ukrainian capital, missile debris damaged a car and the roof of a building.

In Kharkov, several strikes hit industrial and infrastructure objects, according to Igor Terekhov, the head of the region. He warned that residents may experience blackouts and water shortages.

The Russian military has been targeting Ukrainian energy infrastructure, which it considers essential for the country’s military capabilities, since October last year. Moscow stepped up pressure after it accused Kiev of using “terrorist tactics” and targeting Russian infrastructure, including the Crimean Bridge. Russian investigators said Ukrainian military intelligence had masterminded the bomb attack on the strategic crossing.

The degradation of Ukraine’s energy system has forced the introduction of rolling blackouts.



ウクライナ軍総司令官Valery Zaluzhnyは、黒海から発射された2発のカリブミサイルがルーマニアとモルドバの領空を通過したと主張した。モルドバ国防省は、自国上空を通過するウクライナ向けのミサイルを探知したと報告し、違反を非難したが、直ちにロシアを非難することはしなかった。しかし、同国外務省はモスクワの行動とし、ロシア大使を緊急に召還するとしている。







posted by ZUKUNASHI at 21:20| Comment(0) | ウクライナ


posted by ZUKUNASHI at 20:54| Comment(0) | 国際・政治


US role in Kiev’s artillery warfare identified – media
The American military is “controlling every shot” with Pentagon-supplied rockets, a Ukrainian official told the Washington Post
The Ukrainian military requests precise coordinates from the Pentagon for almost every rocket fired from US-made artillery systems, and would not fire a shot without getting them, according to a report by the Washington Post.

Three Ukrainian officials and one senior US official spoke to the newspaper, on condition of anonymity, about America’s involvement. One Ukrainian source implied that Washington has the final say on every action, making the case for the delivery of longer-range rockets to Kiev.

“You’re controlling every shot anyway, so when you say: ‘We’re afraid that you’re going to use it for some other purposes,’ well, we can’t do it even if we want to,” the senior official was quoted as saying.

The US official disputed the characterization, claiming that Ukraine selected targets and that the American side simply provided intelligence to make best use of the GPS-guided munitions. But the Ukrainian official said that when the US fails to provide coordinates as requested, Ukrainian troops simply don’t open fire.

The US has supplied the M142 High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS) to prop up the Ukrainian military against Russia, while the UK has sent the M270 Multiple-Launch Rocket System (MLRS).

Both systems can fire various types of rockets, but the US has declined to provide the longest-range Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) tactical ballistic missiles. Washington reportedly has concerns that Kiev would use them to attack targets in Russia, while Kiev has been lobbying for lifting the restriction.

Russian officials have accused Washington of waging a proxy war against it, citing, among other things, its role in targeting Ukrainian strikes.

HIMARS launchers were reportedly used in attacks on civilian targets, such as the October 2022 strike on a river crossing in Kherson Region, which killed four and injured 13 others. A Ukrainian military spokesperson claimed at the time that the victims were Russian troops disguised as civilians.

Another incident occurred in January, and involved a HIMARS strike on a hospital in the city of Novoaydar in the Lugansk People’s Republic. The attack killed 14 people and injured 24 others, according to the Russian military.








posted by ZUKUNASHI at 18:43| Comment(0) | ウクライナ


posted by ZUKUNASHI at 17:55| Comment(0) | コロナワクチン


posted by ZUKUNASHI at 17:10| Comment(0) | コロナワクチン


posted by ZUKUNASHI at 16:56| Comment(0) | ウクライナ

この先数日 日本近辺でも地震の恐れ

紫色の帯またはその付近で 1 〜 4 日間、より強い地震活動が発生する可能性があります。これは見積もりです。他の地域は除外されません。
posted by ZUKUNASHI at 10:47| Comment(2) | 福島原発事故




ウイルスが加齢性黄斑変性症 (AMD) を引き起こす 先進国の失明原因の一つ
男性器が勃起で強い痛み 治療法はあるようですが、数か月かかるようです。
posted by ZUKUNASHI at 10:10| Comment(0) | Covid19


フランスは、6 基の原子炉を建設する€ 500 億計画の一部に資金を提供するために、普通預金口座の預金者からの資金を使用することを検討しています

落ち着いてください。フランス国民は、リブレット A 口座に資金を預け入れ、国から非課税の金利を受け取ることができます。資金は国営プロジェクトに投資できますが、貯蓄者はいつでも自由に資金を引き出すことができます。フランスは預金者の資金を盗んでいません。
posted by ZUKUNASHI at 09:28| Comment(0) | 国際・政治




posted by ZUKUNASHI at 09:16| Comment(0) | Covid19


Zelensky takes credit for derailing Minsk agreements
The Ukrainian president claimed he personally refused to implement the deal for peace in Donbass

Ukrainian President Vladimir Zelensky personally refused to implement the 2015 Minsk agreements – a roadmap for peace in the east of the country, which was co-sponsored by Germany and France.

He made the admission during an interview with Der Spiegel published on Thursday as he continues his tour across Europe.

Zelensky said he viewed the agreements as a “concession” on Ukraine’s part, and never once actually sought to implement them. Instead, they were merely used to exchange prisoners with the two breakaway Donbass republics.

The president claimed he openly told that to then-German Chancellor Angela Merkel, French President Emmanuel Macron, and Russian President Vladimir Putin back in 2019, with all of them acting “surprised.”

“But as for Minsk as a whole, I told Emmanuel Macron and Angela Merkel: ‘We cannot implement it like this,’” Zelensky stated. “I told [Putin] the same as the other two. They were surprised and said: ‘If we had known beforehand that you would change the meaning of our meeting, then there would have been problems even before the summit.’”

The Minsk agreements, originally brokered in 2014 and further expanded in 2015, envisioned a roadmap for reconciliation between Ukraine and the Donbass republics of Donetsk and Lugansk. The two regions rebelled against the country’s new authorities in the aftermath of the 2014 Maidan coup in Kiev, which ousted democratically elected President Viktor Yanukovich.

Ukraine’s failure to implement the agreement, which would have seen the breakaway territories reintegrated with the country but retain a special status, ultimately led to the ongoing conflict.

Since the outbreak of hostilities in Ukraine, multiple politicians have taken credit for the failure of the Minsk agreements, admitting they were merely a ruse to give Ukraine time to build up its military. Former Ukrainian president Pyotr Poroshenko was the first to admit last year that Kiev never intended to abide by them and used the deal to “create powerful armed forces.”

Merkel and another original signatory of the Minsk agreements, former French president Francois Hollande, have also since confirmed that this was actually the true goal of the deal.

Moscow considers these admissions to be evidence that the negotiations were conducted in bad faith and that the Ukrainian government and its backers had always intended for the Minsk agreements to flop and for the Donbass crisis to be resolved by force. Russia claims that its military campaign in Ukraine, launched last February, preempted an offensive planned by Kiev with NATO’s help. Ukraine, Germany, and France “lied to the people of Donbass, as they had a terrible fate planned for them, which Russia prevented,” Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said back in January.

“Germany, France and Ukraine were playing a swindle game with the Minsk agreements. Now is payback time,” he stated at the time.




大統領は、2019年に当時のドイツのアンゲラ・メルケル首相、フランスのエマニュエル・マクロン大統領、ロシアのウラジーミル・プーチン大統領にそのことを公然と伝え、全員が "驚いた "という行動を取ったと主張している。

"しかし、ミンスク全体については、私はエマニュエル・マクロンとアンゲラ・メルケルに、「このままでは実施できない」と言った "とゼレンスキーは述べている。「プーチンにも同じことを言った。彼らは驚いて、"もしあなたが会談の意味を変えることを事前に知っていたら、首脳会談の前から問題が起きていただろう "と言ったんです」と述べた。






posted by ZUKUNASHI at 08:51| Comment(0) | ウクライナ


Covid Cockの別のケース:この例の凝固したディック:
男性は、Covidの後、陰茎に非常に痛みを伴う血栓を発症します: 勃起によって始まります:
41 歳: 感染から数週間後、強打を試みると、焼けるような痛みに終わります:
posted by ZUKUNASHI at 08:42| Comment(0) | Covid19